An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Spousal Violence in Canada, 2009

Appendix B: Victim Costs Footnote 77

B.1 Health Care

B.1.1 Physician Visits

Number of female victims visiting a physician 2,719Table note a
Number of male victims visiting a physician 721Table note a
Average cost of one physician visit, 2004/05 $50.36Table note b
Average cost of one physician visit, 2009 (inflation adjustment) $55
Physician visits costs – spousal violence against females (2,719*$55) $149,571
Physician visits costs – spousal violence against males (721*$55) $39,640
Total Health Care Costs, Physician Visits $189,212

B.1.2 Emergency Department Visits

Number of female victims visiting emergency departments 7,245Table note a
Number of male victims visiting emergency departments 2,602Table note a
Average emergency department treatment cost, 2007/08 $260Table note b
Average emergency department treatment cost, 2009 (inflation adjustment) $266
Total emergency department treatment costs for female victims (7,245*$266) $1,926,564
Total emergency department treatment costs for male victims (2,602*$266) $691,935
Percentage of female victims transported to emergency department by ambulance 60%Table note c
Percentage of male victims transported to emergency department by ambulance 50%Table note c
Number of female victims transported to emergency department by ambulance (7,245*0.6) 4,347
Number of male victims transported to emergency department by ambulance (2,602*0.5) 1,301
Average cost of ambulance service, 2006/07 $565Table note d
Average cost of ambulance service, 2009 (inflation adjustment) $590
Total cost of providing ambulance transport for female victims (4,347*$590) $2,563,845
Total cost of providing ambulance transport for male victims (1,301*$590) $767,347
Emergency department visits costs – spousal violence against females ($1,926,564+$2,563,845) $4,490,409
Emergency department visits costs – spousal violence against males ($691,935+$767,347) $1,459,282
Total Health Care Costs, Emergency Department Visits $5,949,691

B.1.3 Acute Hospitalization (Overnight Hospitalization)

Number of female victims admitted to acute hospitalization 1,444Table note a
Number of male victims admitted to acute hospitalization 800Table note a
Length of stay of hospitalization for female victims in days 2,882Table note b
Length of stay of hospitalization for male victims in days 10,521Table note b
Average daily acute hospitalization cost $1,044Table note c
Total acute hospitalization costs for female victims (2,882*$1,044) $3,009,211
Total acute hospitalization costs for male victims (10,521*$1,044) $10,983,850
Percentage of victims transported to hospital by ambulance 60%Table note d
Number of female victims transported to hospital by ambulance (1,444*0.6) 866
Number of male victims transported to hospital by ambulance (800*0.6) 480
Average cost of ambulance service, 2009 $590Table note e
Total cost of providing ambulance transport for female victims (866*$590) $510,792
Total cost of providing ambulance transport for male victims (480*$590) $283,081
Acute hospitalization costs – spousal violence against females ($3,009,211+$510,792) $3,520,004
Acute hospitalization costs – spousal violence against males ($10,983,850+$283,081) $11,266,931
Total Health Care Costs, Acute Hospitalization $14,786,935

Total Health Care Costs
  Spousal Violence against Females Spousal Violence against Males Total
Physician Visits $149,571 $39,640 $189,211
Emergency Department Visits $4,490,409 $1,459,282 $5,949,691
Acute Hospitalization $3,520,004 $11,266,931 $14,786,935
Total Health Care Costs $8,159,984 $12,765,853 $20,925,837

B.2 Mental Health Issues

Total number of female victims with depression/anxiety disorders
(mental health issues)
38,332 Table note a
Total number of male victims with depression/anxiety disorders
(mental health issues)
10,320 Table note a
  Female Male
 Victims aged 15-19 0 0
 Victims aged 20-34 17,864 3,742
 Victims aged 35-49 13,134 4,172
 Victims aged 50-64 4,889 642
 Victims aged 65+ 2,444 1,765
Number of female victims with diagnosed mental health issues
( i.e. on medication)
11,840 Table note b
Number of male victims with diagnosed mental health issues
( i.e. on medication)
2,008 Table note b
  Female Male
 Victims aged 20-34 4,346 732
 Victims aged 35-49 4,694 901
 Victims aged 50-64 2,244 375
 Victims aged 65+ 556 0
Number of female victims with undiagnosed mental health issues
(38,332-11,840)
26,491
Number of male victims with undiagnosed mental health issues
(10,320-2,008)
8,313
  Female Male
 Victims aged 20-34 13,519 3,010
 Victims aged 35-49 8,439 3,271
 Victims aged 50-64 2,645 267
 Victims aged 65+ 1,889 1,765

B.2.1 Medical Services

Incremental Costs Due To Mental Health Issues
(compared to people with no mental health issue)
Victims with a diagnosed mental health issue Incremental cost, 2003/04 Table note a Inflation adjustment, 2009
 Victims aged 20-34 $1,135 $1,246
 Victims aged 35-49 $1,502 $1,650
 Victims aged 50-64 $2,025 $2,225
 Victims aged 65+ $2,025 $2,225
Victims with an undiagnosed mental health issue Incremental cost, 2003/04 Table note a Inflation adjustment, 2009
 Victims aged 20-34 $347 $382
 Victims aged 35-49 $684 $751
 Victims aged 50-64 $1,430 $1,571
 Victims aged 65+ $1,430 $1,571
Incremental medical costs for female victims with a diagnosed mental health issue (4,346*$1,246+4,694*$1,650+2,244*$2,225+556*$2,225) $19,392,426
Incremental medical costs for male victims with a diagnosed mental health issue (732*$1,246+901*$1,650+375*$2,225) $3,232,566
Incremental medical costs for female victims with an undiagnosed mental health issue (13,519*$382+8,439*$751+2,645*$1,571+1,889*$1,571) $18,621,546
Incremental medical costs for male victims with an undiagnosed mental health issue (3,010*$382+3,271*$751+267*$1,571+1,765*$1,571) $6,797,889
Medical costs for mental health issues – spousal violence against females ($19,392,426+$18,621,546) $38,013,972
Medical costs for mental health issues – spousal violence against males ($3,232,566+$6,797,889) $10,030,455
Total Mental Health Costs, Medical Services $48,044,427

B.2.2 Work Loss

Incremental Work Loss Due To Mental Health Issues
(compared to people with no mental health issue), short-term
Victims with a diagnosed mental health issue Incremental cost, 2003/04 Table note a Inflation adjustment, 2009
 Victims aged 20-34 $3,141 $3,454
 Victims aged 35-49 $3,193 $3,509
 Victims aged 50-64 $3,885 $4,269
Victims with an undiagnosed mental health issue Incremental cost, 2003/04 Table note a Inflation adjustment, 2009
 Victims aged 20-34 $1,842 $2,023
 Victims aged 35-49 $1,901 $2,088
 Victims aged 50-64 $4,182 $4,595
Incremental work loss for female victims with a diagnosed mental health issue (4,346*$3,454+4,694*$3,509+2,244*$4,269) $41,047,831
Incremental work loss for male victims with an diagnosed mental health issue (732*$3,454+901*$3,509+375*$4,269) $7,286,603
Incremental work loss for female victims with an undiagnosedmental health issue (13,519*$2,023+8,439*$2,088+2,645*$4,595) $57,130,800
Incremental work loss for male victims with an undiagnosed mental health issue (3,010*$2,023+3,271*$2,088+267*$4,595) $14,147,811
Short-term work loss – spousal violence against females ($41,047,831+$57,130,800) $98,178,631
Short term work loss – spousal violence against males ($7,286,603+$14,147,811) $21,434,414
Total Mental Health Costs, Short-term Work Loss $119,613,045

B.2.3 Suicide Attempts (Medical Costs)

Number of hospitalizations due to suicide attempts, people aged 15-70 16,930Table note a
Proportion of suicide attempts by women 58%Table note a
Number of hospitalizations due to suicide attempts, females (16,930*58%) 9,843
Number of hospitalizations due to suicide attempts, males (16,930-9,578) 7,087
Percentage of suicide attempts by females motivated by spousal violence 10.8%Table note b
Percentage of suicide attempts by males motivated by spousal violence 1.6%Table note c
Number of hospitalizations for suicide attempts by female victims motivated by spousal violence (9,843*10.8%) 1,060
Number of hospitalization for suicide attempts by male victims motivated by spousal violence (7,087*1.6%) 114
Average length of stay in hospital for suicide attempts in days 7.74Table note d
Number of hospitalization days due to suicide attempts, female victims (1,060*7.74) 8,203
Number of hospitalization days due to suicide attempts, male victims (114*7.74) 883
Average daily hospitalization cost $1,044Table note e
Hospitalization costs due to suicide attempts, females (8,203*$1,044) $8,564,141
Hospitalization costs due to suicide attempts, males (883*$1,044) $921,389
Average number of emergency department visits associated with each hospitalization 2.5
Number of emergency department visits due to suicide attempts, female victims (1,060*2.5) 2,650
Number of emergency department visits due to suicide attempts, male victims (114*2.5) 285
Average emergency department treatment cost, 2009 $266Table note f
Emergency department costs due to suicide attempts, females (2,650*$266) $704,797
Emergency department costs due to suicide attempts (285*$266) $75,827
Percentage of emergency department visits requiring ambulance services 90%Table note g
Number of emergency department visits requiring ambulance transportation, female victims (2,650*90%) 2,385
Number of emergency department visits requiring ambulance transportation, male victims (285*90%) 257
Average cost of ambulance services, 2009 $590Table note h
Total cost of providing ambulance services to female victims (2,385*$590) $1,406,944
Total cost of providing ambulance services to male victims (257*$590) $151,369
Medical costs for suicide attempts – spousal violence against females
($8,564,141+$704,797+$1,406,944)
$10,675,883
Medical costs for suicide attempts – spousal violence against males
($921,389+$75,827+$151,369)
$1,148,584
Total Mental Health Costs, Suicides and Suicide Attempts
(Medical Costs Only)
$11,824,467

B.2.3.1 Completed Suicides

Number of completed suicides, females, aged 15-70 765Table note a
Number of completed suicides, males, aged 15-70 2,488Table note a
Percentage of suicides primarily caused by spousal violence, females 10.8%Table note b
Percentage of suicides primarily caused by spousal violence, males 1.6% Table note b
Number of completed suicides primarily caused by spousal violence, female victims (765*10.8%) 82
Number of completed suicides primarily caused by spousal violence, male victims (2,488*1.6%) 40

Total Mental Health Costs
  Spousal Violence against Females Spousal Violence against Males Total
Medical Services $38,013,972 $10,030,455 $48,044,427
Short-term Work Loss $98,178,631 $21,434,414 $119,613,045
Suicide Attempts (Medical Costs) $10,675,883 $1,148,584 $11,824,467
Total Mental Health Costs $146,868,486 $32,613,453 $179,481,939

B.3 Productivity Losses

B.3.1 Lost Wages Table note a

GSS 2009, Main File, Ex-Spousal Violence, Female Victims
Number of days in hospital  3,268 Table note b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 61,052 Table note c
Number of days off work (excluding hospital and bed time)  55,006 Table note d
Total number of days absent from work (3,268+61,052+55,006) 119,326
Average daily wage of female victims $136 Table note e
Lost wages for female victims of ex-spousal violence ($136*119,326) $16,229,134
GSS 2009, Main File, Current Spousal Violence, Female Victims
Number of days in hospital  922 Table note b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 5,533 Table note c
Number of days off work (excluding hospital and bed time)  19,365 Table note d
Total number of days absent from work (922+5,533+19,365) 25,820
Average daily wage of female victims  $183 Table note e
Lost wages for female victims of current spousal violence ($183*25,820) $4,714,466
GSS 2009, Main File, Ex-Spousal Violence, Male Victims
Number of days in hospital  9,212 Table note b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 5,400 Table note c
Number of days off work (excluding hospital and bed time) 16,317 Table note d
Total number of days absent from work (9,212+5,400+16,317) 30,929
Average daily wage of male victims  $294 Table note e
Lost wages for male victims of ex-spousal violence ($294*30,929) $9,094,552
GSS 2009, Main File, Current Spousal Violence, Male Victims
Number of days in hospital  2,088 Table note b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 1,789 Table note c
Number of days off work (excluding hospital and bed time)  10,737 Table note d
Total number of days absent from work (2,088+1,789+10,737) 14,614
Average daily wage of male victims  $249 Table note e
Lost wages for male victims of current spousal violence ($249*14,614) $3,633,535
Lost wages – spousal violence against females ($16,229,134+$4,714,466) $20,943,599
Lost wages – spousal violence against males ($9,094,552+$3,633,535) $12,728,087
Total Productivity Losses, Lost Wages $33,671,686

B.3.2 Lost Household Services Table note a

GSS 2009, Main File, Ex-Spousal Violence, Female Victims
Number of days in hospital 7,853 Table note b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 111,450 Table note c
Number of days unable to perform daily activities (excluding hospital and bed time) 77,421 Table note d
Total number of days off from daily activities (7,853+111,450+77,421) 196,724
GSS 2009, Main File, Current Spousal Violence, Female Victims
Number of days in hospital 831 Table note b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 8,886 Table note c
Number of days unable to perform daily activities (excluding hospital and bed time) 41,157 Table note d
Total number of days off from daily activities (831+8,886+41,157) 50,874
GSS 2009, Main File, Ex-Spousal Violence, Male Victims
Number of days in hospital 9,552 Table note b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 39,164 Table note c
Number of days unable to perform daily activities (excluding hospital and bed time) 19,769 Table note d
Total number of days off from daily activities (9,552+39,164+19,769) 68,485
GSS 2009, Main File, Current Spousal Violence, Male Victims
Number of days in hospital 2,771b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 2,463 Table note c
Number of days unable to perform daily activities (excluding hospital and bed time) 14,779 Table note d
Total number of days off from daily activities (2,771+2,463+14,779) 20,013
Number of lost days for female victims (196,724+50,875) 247,599
Number of lost days for male victims (68,485+20,013) 88,498
Average hours per day spent on household services, females 4 Table note e
Average hours per day spent on household services, males 2.5 Table note e
Total lost hours of household services, female victims (247,599*4) 990,396
Total lost hours of household services, male victims (88,498*2.5) 221,245
Average hourly wage rate for household workers $15.60 Table note f
Value of lost household services – spousal violence against females (990,396*$15.60) $15,450,178
Value of lost household services – spousal violence against males (221,245*$15.60) $3,451,422
Total Productivity Losses, Lost Household Services $18,901,600

B.3.3 Lost Education Table note a

GSS 2009, Main File, Ex-Spousal Violence, Female Victims
Number of days in hospital 267 Table note b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 3,351 Table note c
Number of days absent from school (excluding hospital and bed time) 1,456 Table note d
Total number of days absent from school (267+3,351+1,456) 5,074
GSS 2009, Main File, Current Spousal Violence, Female Victims
Number of days absent from school (excluding hospital and bed time) 1,500 Table note d
GSS 2009, Main File, Ex and Current Spousal Violence, Male Victims
Total number of days absent from school 0
Total number of days absent from school for female victims (5,074+1,500) 6,574
Total number of days absent from school for male victims 0
Average tuition fees for undergraduate studies, 2009 $4,926 Table note e
Average university school days 125 Table note f
Average cost per university school day ($4,926/125) $39.41
Value of lost education – spousal violence against females (6,574*$39.41) $259,081
Value of lost education – spousal violence against males (0*$39.41) $0
Total Productivity Losses, Lost Education $259,081

B.3.4 Lost Childcare Services Table note a

GSS 2009, Main File, Ex Spousal Violence, Female Victims
Number of days in hospital 984 Table note b
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 3,975 Table note c
Number of days unable to perform normal daily activity (excluding hospital and bed time) 5,892 Table note d
Total number of days off from daily activity (984+3,975+5,892) 10,852
GSS 2009, Main File, Current Spousal Violence, Female Victims
Number of days unable to perform normal daily activity (excluding hospital and bed time) 4,909 Table note d
GSS 2009, Main File, Current Spousal Violence, Male Victims
Number of days bedridden (excluding hospital time) 500 Table note c
Number of days unable to perform normal daily activity (excluding hospital and bed time) 1,500 Table note d
Total number of days of lost childcare services, female victims (10,852+4,909) 15,761
Total number of days of lost childcare services, male victims (500+1,500) 2,000
Average cost of childcare per day, 2009 $30 Table note e
Value of lost childcare services – spousal violence against females (15,761*$30) $472,829
Value of lost childcare services – spousal violence against males (2000*$30) $60,000
Total Productivity Losses, Lost Childcare Services $532,829
Total Productivity Losses
  Spousal Violence against Females Spousal Violence against Males Total
Lost Wages $20,943,599 $12,728,087 $33,671,686
Lost Household Services $15,450,178 $3,451,422 $18,901,600
Lost Education $259,081 $0 $259,081
Lost Childcare Services $472,829 $60,000 $532,829
Total Productivity Losses $37,125,687 $16,239,509 $53,365,196

B.4 Other Personal Costs

B.4.1 Damaged or Destroyed Property

Number of female victims who reported damaged/destroyed property 52,501Table note a
Number of male victims who reported damaged/destroyed property 21,951Table note a
Average value of damaged or destroyed property $1,198Table note b
Value of damaged or destroyed property – spousal violence against females (52,501*$1,198) $62,915,576
Value of damaged or destroyed property – spousal violence against males (21,951*$1,198) $26,306,202
Total Other Personal Costs, Damaged or Destroyed Property $89,221,778

B.4.2 Divorce and Separation (Legal Costs)

Total legal fees for spousal violence caused divorce $81,987,747Table note a
Legal aid expenditures on spousal violence caused divorce $12,761,670Table note a
Legal costs for divorce borne by victims ($81,987,747-$12,761,670) $69,226,077
Legal aid expenditures on spousal violence caused separation $10,814,975Table note a
Percentage of people who received legal aid out of all those seeking legal assistance for a relationship breakdown 10%Table note b
Percentage of people who received private legal assistance out of all those seeking legal assistance for a relationship breakdown (1-10%) 90%
Total legal fees for spousal violence caused separation ($10,814,975/10%) 108,149,750
Legal costs for separation borne by victims ($108,149,750*90%) $97,334,775
Total private legal costs for divorce and separation caused by spousal violence ($69,226,077+$97,334,775) $166,560,852
Percentage of spousal violence caused divorce and separation initiated by females 81%Table note c
Percentage of spousal violence caused divorce and separation initiated by males 19%Table note c
Private legal costs for divorce and separation – spousal violence against females ($166,560,851*81%) $134,914,290
Private legal costs for divorce and separation – spousal violence against males ($166,560,851*19%) $31,646,562
Total Other Personal Costs, Legal Costs for Divorce and Separation $166,560,852

B.4.3 Special Phone Features

Number of female victims who purchased special phone features 14,928Table note a
Number of male victims who purchased special phone features 2,117Table note a
Average cost of purchasing one type of special phone feature per month $10Table note b
Costs of special phone features – spousal violence against females (14,928*$10*12) $1,791,358
Costs of special phone features – spousal violence against males (2,117*$10*12) $254,044
Total Other Personal Costs, Special Phone Features $2,045,402

B.4.4 Moving Expenses

Number of female victims forced to move 12,244Table note a
Number of male victims forced to move 1,190Table note a
Average moving expenses $1,000Table note b
Moving expenses – spousal violence against females (12,244*$1,000) $12,244,154
Moving expenses – spousal violence against males (1,190*$1,000) $1,190,099
Total Other Personal Costs, Moving $13,434,253
Total Other Personal Costs
  Spousal Violence against Females Spousal Violence against Males Total
Damaged or Destroyed Property $62,915,576 $26,306,202 $89,221,778
Divorce and Separation (Legal Costs) $134,914,290 $31,646,562 $166,560,852
Special Phone Features $1,791,358 $254,044 $2,045,402
Moving Expenses $12,244,154 $1,190,099 $13,434,253
Total Other Personal Costs $211,865,378 $59,396,907 $271,262,285

B.5 Intangible Costs

B.5.1 Pain and Suffering

Number of female victims of sexual assault  6,376 Table note a
Number of male victims of sexual assault  2,760 Table note a
Number of female victims of physical assault  173,517 Table note b
Number of male victims of physical assault  153,044 Table note b
Proposed value of pain and suffering for sexual assault $86,800 Table note c
Proposed value of pain and suffering for physical assault $9,800 Table note c
Value of Pain and Suffering, Female Victims
Female victims of sexual assault (6,376*$86,800) $553,347,536
Female victims of physical assault (173,517*$9,800) $1,697,690,328
Value of Pain and Suffering, Male Victims
Male victims of sexual assault (2,760*$86,800) $239,529,360
Male victims of physical assault (153,044*$9,800) $1,497,382,496
Pain and suffering – spousal violence against females ($553,347,536+$1,697,690,328) $2,251,037,864
Pain and suffering – spousal violence against males ($239,529,360+$1,497,382,496) $1,736,911,856
Total Intangible Victim Costs, Pain and Suffering $3,987,949,720

B.5.2 Loss of Life

Number of spousal homicides, female victims 49Table note a
Number of spousal homicides, male victims 15Table note a
Number of other deaths caused by spousal violence, female victims 6Table note b
Number of other deaths caused by spousal violence, male victims 2Table note b
Number of suicides primarily motivated by spousal violence, female victims 82Table note c
Number of suicides primarily motivated by spousal violence, male victims 40Table note c
Total number of female deaths due to spousal violence (49+6+82) 137
Total number of male deaths due to spousal violence (15+2+40) 57
Number of victims whose gender is unknown 1Table note a
Proposed value of a human life $7,550,000Table note d
Value of lost lives for female victims (137*$7,550,000) $1,034,350,000
Value of lost lives for male victims (57*$7,550,000) $430,350,000
Value of lost life for one victim of unknown gender (1*$7,550,000) $7,550,000
Proportion attributed to female victims ($7,550,000*[137/(137+57)]) $5,331,701
Proportion attributed to male victims ($7,550,000*[57/(137+57)]) $2,218,299
Value of lost lives – spousal violence against females ($1,034,350,000+$5,331,701) $1,039,681,701
Value of lost lives – spousal violence against males ($430,350,000+$2,218,299) $432,568,299
Total Intangible Victim Cost, Loss of Life $1,472,250,000

Total Intangible Victim Costs

  Spousal Violence against Females Spousal Violence against Males Total
Pain and Suffering $2,251,037,864 $1,736,911,856 $3,987,949,720
Loss of Life $1,039,681,701 $432,568,299 $1,472,250,000
Total Intangible Victim Costs $3,290,719,565 $2,169,480,155 $5,460,199,720
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