Bijuralism in Canada: Harmonization and Terminology

Endnotes

  • [1] Debates of the Senate (Hansard), Volume 138, Issue 58, 36th Parliament, 2nd Session, Thursday, May 18, 2000, debate on Bill S-22, Federal Law—Civil Law Harmonization Act, No. 1: http://www.parl.gc.ca/36/2/parlbus/chambus/senate/deb­e/58db_2000-05-18-E.html Bill S-22 died on the Order Paper when Parliament was dissolved on October 22, 1999 for the federal elections. A new bill, Bill S-4, Federal Law-Civil Law Harmonization Act, No. 1 (reiterating the content of former Bill S-22), was tabled in the Senate on January 31, 2001: http://www.parl.gc.ca/37/1/parlbus/chambus/house/bills/government/S-4/S-4_1/90040bF.html.

  • [2] Address given at a luncheon presentation on bijuralism and the judiciary, Justice Canada, Ottawa, February 4, 2000.

  • [3]  Supra, note 2.

  • [4]  See Appendix I.

  • [5]  The mandate of the Civil Code Section can be found in Appendix II.

  • [6]  See Appendix III.

  • [7]  Article by Nicole-Marie Fernbach, then a legal revisor, Translation Bureau, Montreal Section, Terminology Update, Vol. 17, No. 7 and 8, 1984.

  • [8]  This part was prepared in co-operation with Martin-François Parent, a lawyer in the Civil Code Section.

  • [9]  R.S.C. 1985, c. Y-2.

  • [10] Although in general the provincial legislatures have exclusive jurisdiction in property and civil law matters, the federal Parliament has exclusive jurisdiction in certain areas of private law, particularly bankruptcy and insolvency, bills of exchange, and marriage and divorce: Constitution Act, 1867, 30 & 31 Vict., c. 3., subs. 91(18), 91(21), 91(26) and 92(13).

  • [11] See Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. B-3, s. 136.

  • [12] R.S.C. 1985, c. I-21.

  • [13] R.S.C. 1985, c. F-7.

  • [14] These categories and explanations are taken from J. M. Brisson and A. Morel, "Droit fédéral et droit civil : complémentarité et dissociation"; A. Morel, "Méthodologie et plan de travail — Rapport final", p. 273 ff., L'harmonisation de la législation fédérale avec le droit civil québécois et le bijuridisme canadien, Recueil d'études, Justice Canada.

  • [15] Crown Liability and Proceedings Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-50, s. 32.

  • [16] Ibid., s. 3.

  • [17] Under section 15 of the Interpretation Act, some definitions can be found in other enactments on the same subject. This section reads as follows:

    • (1) Definitions or rules of interpretation in an enactment apply to all the provisions of the enactment, including the provisions that contain those definitions or rules of interpretation.
    • (2) Where an enactment contains an interpretation section or provision, it shall be read and construed
      • (a) as being applicable only if a contrary intention does not appear; and
      • (b) as being applicable to all other enactments relating to the same subject-matter unless a contrary intention appears.
  • [18] An example is the Government Employees Compensation Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. G‑5, s. 2.

  • [19] An example is found in the terms "person"/"individual"/"subject"/"personne"/"particulier".

  • [20] For example, enactments may use the term "mortgage" in the English version and the term "hypothèque" in the French version. In these cases, some legal research shows that the term "mortgage" belongs to the common law tradition, while the term "hypothèque" belongs to both traditions. In the English version, there is an absence of a point of contact with Quebec civil law. Such a provision is called semi-bijural, and must be harmonized; in this instance, the appropriate solution would be to add the English term "hypothec".

  • [21] For example, the Financial Administration Act, R.S.C. (1985), c. F-11.

  • [22] For more details about the POLAJ, see: http://www.pajlo.org/en/who/index.htm

  • [23] See the section of this paper entitled "Historical Background" above.

  • [24] Supra, note 2..

  • [25] A technique used, in certain acts of the British Parliament, to enact special provisions applicable in Scotland.

  • [26] Supra, note 1.

  • [27] R.S.C. 1985, c. C-50.

  • [28] S.C. 1991, c. 50.

  • [29] Supra, note 26.

  • [30] Supra, note 27.

  • [31] R.S.C. 1985, c. D-1.

  • [32] See the Translation Bureau's site: http://www.translationbureau.gc.ca

  • [33] See Appendix III.

  • [34] See Appendix I.

  • [35] See Appendix III.

  • [36] This policy was adopted by Justice Canada.

  • [37] Report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Government Organization (the Glassco Commission), 1962.

  • [38]A computerized data bank at Justice Canada's Regional Office in Montreal.

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