Grandparent-Grandchild Access: A Legal Analysis

ENDNOTES

  • [1] 120 S. Ct. 2054 (2000).
  • [2] Brief Amici Curiae of the American Association of Retired Persons and Generations United, filed November 12, 1999.
  • [3] Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Center for Law and Justice Supporting Respondent, filed December 10, 1999;  Brief Amici Curiae of the Christian Legal Society and The National Association of Evangelicals, filed December 13, 1999.
  • [4] Brief of the Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund and Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders as Amici Curiae, filed December 13, 1999.
  • [5] Brief Amicus Curiae of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the ACLU of Washington, filed December 13, 1999.
  • [6] Brief Amicus Curriae of the National Association of Counsel for Children, filed December 13, 1999.
  • [7] Canada, Report of the Special Joint Committee on Child Custody and Access, For the Sake of the Children, available online at (date accessed, July 30, 2001). http://www.parl.gc.ca/InfoComDoc/36/1/SJCA/Studies/rap-rep/sjcarp02-e.htm
  • [8] [2001] O.J. No. 705 (Ont. C.A.).
  • [9] Wash. Rev. Code § 26.10.160 (3) (Supp.1996).
  • [10] Troxel was combined with two other similar cases and is cited as Re Custody of Sara Skyanne Smith et al., 137 Wn. 2nd 1 (Wash. 1998).
  • [11] Ibid at 21.
  • [12] Ibid.
  • [13] U.S. Const. amend. XIV, § 1, cl. 2.
  • [14] Supra, Note 1 at 2059.
  • [15] Ibid at 2060.
  • [16] Ibid.
  • [17] Ibid.  See also, U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (1923); Pierce v. Society of Sisters.  268 U.S. 510 (1925); Prince v. Massachusetts, 321 U.S. 158 (1944); Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972).
  • [18] Ibid.
  • [19] Ibid.
  • [20] Ibid at 2061.
  • [21] 442 U.S. 584 at 602 (1979).
  • [22] Supra, Note 1 at 2061.
  • [23] Ibid at 2062.
  • [24] Ibid.
  • [25] Ibid at 2064.
  • [26] Ibid.
  • [27] (28 March 2000), Ontario 1131/98 (Ont. S.C.J.) [unreported].
  • [28] Supra, Note 8 at para. 20.
  • [29] Supra, Note 8 at paras. 21-23.
  • [30] Art. 611 C.C.Q.
  • [31] S.N.B. 1980, c. F-2.2.
  • [32] R.S.A. 1980 c. p-20.
  • [33] R.S.B.C. 1996, c.128, as am. by S.B.C. 1998, c.28.
  • [34] R.S.Y. 1986, c.22, as am. by S.Y. 1998, c.4.
  • [35] R.S.C. 1985, chap. 3.
  • [36] R.S.O. 1990, chap. C.12.
  • [37] D. (G.) v. M. (G.) (1999) 47 R.F.L. (4th) 16 at 27 (N.W.T.S.C.).
  • [38] [1985] O. J.  No. 725 at para. 1 (Ont. C.A.) (QL).
  • [39] (1982) 24 R.F.L. (2d) 342 (Ont. C.A.).
  • [40] Supra, Note 37 at 27.
  • [41] (1992) 39 R.F.L. (3d) 163 at 167 (N.S. Fam. Ct.).
  • [42] (1985) 45 R.F.L. (2d) 337 at 347 (B.C.S.C.).
  • [43] MacGyver v. Richards (1995) 22 O.R. (3d) 481 at 492 (Ont. C.A.).
  • [44] Wylde v. Wylde [1984] O.J. No. 764 (Ont. Prov. Ct. Fam. Div.) (QL); Moreau v. Cody (1995) 15. R.F.L. (4th) 174 (O.C.J. Prov. Div.); and Paulini v. Schmidt [1993] O.J. No. 2907 (O.C.J. Gen. Div.) (QL).
  • [45] [1991] O.J. No. 1114 (O.C.J. Prov. Div.) (QL).
  • [46] Corinne Wilks and Catherine Melville, Grandparents in Custody and Access Disputes (1990) 13 (3):  Journal of Divorce, 1 at  3-4.
  • [47] Carolyn Cogswell and Carolyn S. Henry, Grandchildren’s Perceptions of Grandparental Support in Divorced and Intact Families, (1995) 23 (3/4):  Journal of Remarriage and Divorce, 127 at 147.
  • [48] Supra, Note 1 at 2063.
  • [49] 828 S.W. (2d) 630 at 631-632 (Ky. 1992).
  • [50] Ibid at 633.
  • [51] 420 N.Y.S. 2d  697 (N.Y. Fam. Ct. 1979).
  • [52] 332 A. 2d 199 at 204-205 (N.J. 1975).
  • [53] 87 Cal. App 4th 1099 (2001).
  • [54] Ibid at 1110.
  • [55] Ibid.
  • [56] [1996] O.J. No. 755 at Par. 7 (O.C.J. Prov. Div.) (QL).
  • [57] [2000] A.J. No. 1082 (Alta. Prov. Ct.) (QL).
  • [58] Anne Marie Jackson, The Coming of Age of Grandparent Visitation Rights,(Winter 1994) 43 Am. U.L. Rev. 563 at 580.
  • [59] Supra, Note 8 at para. 19.
  • [60] Ibid at para. 17.
  • [61] Andre P. Derdeyn, Grandparent Visitation Rights:  Rendering Family Dissension More Pronounced?  Amer. J. Orthopsychiat.  (April 1985) 277 at 282.
  • [62] Ross A. Thompson, Mario J. Scalora, Susan P. Limber and Lynn Castrianno, Grandparent Visitation Rights:  A Psycholegal Analysis, Family and Conciliation Courts Review, January 1991, 29 (1) 9 at 16-17.
  • [63] Supra, Note 8 at par. 24.
  • [64] Nicholas Bala and Rebecca Jaremko, "Canada:  Non-Marital Unions, Finality of Separation Agreements and Children’s Issues, submitted for publication in Andrew Bainham, ed., The International Survey of Family Law, 2002 (Jordans).
  • [65] [1996] O.J. No. 2912 at Par. 49 (O.C.J. Prov. Div.) (QL).
  • [66] (1992) 42 R.F.L. (3d) 281 (N.B.Q.B. Fam. Div.).
  • [67] (1998) 13 R.F.L. (3d) 201 at 208-209 (Ont. Prov. Ct. Fam. Div.).
  • [68] (1991) 122 N.B.R. (2d) 271 at 281 (N.B.Q.B. Fam. Div.).
  • [69] Ibid at 278.
  • [70] (May 16, 2001), Ontario 8269/00 (Ontario S.C.J.) [unreported].
  • [71] Ibid at paras. 8 and 9.
  • [72] Ibid at paras. 10 and 11.
  • [73] (Sept. 21, 2001) Ontario 59638/01 (Ont. Div. Ct.) [unreported].
  • [74] (1993) W.D.F.L. 083 (Ont. Ct. Gen. Div.).
  • [75] [1991] O.J. No. 2446 (Ont. Ct. Prov. Div.) (QL).
  • [76] [1999] S.J. No. 568 (Sask. U.F.C.) (QL).
  • [77] [1997] S.C.J. No. 604 (N.S. Fam. Ct.) (QL).
  • [78] (1996) 23 R.F.L. (4th) 106 (N.B.Q.B. Fam. Div.).
  • [79] [1998] O.J. No. 1544 (O.C.J. Gen. Div.) (QL).
  • [80] (1994) 7 R.F.L. (4th) 391 (O.C.J. Gen. Div.).
  • [81] [1988] O.J. No. 2438 (Ont. Ct. Prov. Div.) (QL).
  • [82] [1999] C.C.L. 5070 (S.C.J.).
  • [83] [1998] B.C.J. No. 961 (B.C.S.C.) (QL).
  • [84] Morecraft v. Morecraft (1991) 122 N.B.R. (2d) 271 (N.B.Q.B. Fam. Div.); and Parham v. J.R. et al., 442 U.S. 584 (1979).
  • [85] [1984] O.J. No. 764 (Ont. Prov. Ct. Fam. Div.) (QL).
  • [86] (1998) 31 R.F.L. (4th) 351 (N.S. Fam. Ct.).
  • [87] (1997) 23 R.F.L. (4th) 441 (N.B.Q.B.  Fam. Div.).
  • [88] (1995) 163 N.B.R. (2d) 323 (N.B.Q.B.  Fam. Div.).
  • [89] (1984) 34 Man. R. (2d) 158 (Man. C.A.).
  • [90] [1982] O.J. No. 595 (Ont. Prov. Ct. Fam. Div.) (QL).
  • [91] [1992] B.C.J. No. 1118 (B.C.S.C.) (QL).
  • [92] (1993) 49 R.F.L. (3d) 437 at 440-441 (B.C.C.A.).
  • [93] W. (C.G.) v. J. (M.) (1982) 24 R.F.L. (2d) 342 (Ont. C.A.);  Vormittag v. Vormittag, [1984] O.J. No. 760 (Ont. Prov. Ct. Fam. Div.) (QL); D. (G.) v. M. (G.) (1999) 47 R.F.L. (4th) 16 (N.W.T.S.C.).
  • [94] Supra, Note 81.
  • [95] Supra, Note 61 at 285.
  • [96] Ibid at 278.
  • [97] Supra, Note 80.
  • [98] Supra, Note 68 at 278.
  • [99] (1986) 2 R.F.L. (3d) 414 at 415- 416 (Man. C.A.).
  • [100] Supra, Note 87 at 446.
  • [101] [1995] O.J. No. 425 at para. 19 (O.C.J. Prov. Div.).
  • [102] Kathleen S. Bean, Grandparent Visitation:  Can the Parent Refuse?  U. Louiseville J. Fam. L. 24 393 at 435-436.
  • [103] 855 S.W. (2d) 573 at 580 (Tenn. 1993).
  • [104] Supra, Note 102 at 441.
  • [105] Supra, Note 10 at 20.
  • [106] Joan Catherine Bohl, Grandparent Visitation Law Grows Up:  The Trend Toward Awarding Visitation Only When the Child Would Otherwise Suffer Harm, 48 (2000) Drake L. Rev. 279 at 315.
  • [107] Supra, Note 68 at 278.
  • [108] (1991) 31 R.F.L. (3d) 48 at 52 (N. S. Fam. Ct.).
  • [109] Supra, Note 8 at para. 22.
  • [110] (1997) 35 R.F.L. (4th) 122 at 130 (O.C.J. Prov. Div.).
  • [111] [1998] O.J. No. 2998 at para. 15 (O.C.J. Prov. Div.) (QL).
  • [112] Supra, Note 86 at 376-377.
  • [113] (1995) 173 A.R. 369 (Alta. Q.B.).
  • [114] (1995) 20 R.F.L. (4th) 115 at 121 (Alta. C.A.).
  • [115] Supra, Note 102 at 441.
  • [116] 104 Cal. App. 3d 992 at 996 (1980).
  • [117] Supra, Note 102 at 441-442.
  • [118] 356 N.E. 2d 277 at 281 (N.Y. App. 1976).
  • [119] Supra, Note 103.
  • [120] Supra, Note 10 at 29.
  • [121] Supra,Note 1 at 2064.
  • [122] (1992) 124 N.S.R. (2d) 273 at 274;  345 A.P.R. 273 at 274 (N.S. Fam. Ct.).
  • [123] (1993) 138 N.B.R. (2d) at 330 (N.B.Q.B.).
  • [124] (1996) 19 R.F.L. (4th) 177 (S.C.C.).
  • [125] (1990) 30 R.F.L. (3d) 53 at 63 (Ont. C.A.).
  • [126] (1999) 49 R.F.L. (4th) 250 (B.C.C.A.).
  • [127] Supra, Note 85 at para. 39.
  • [128] Supra, Note 87 at 446.
  • [129] James G. McLeod & Alfred A. Mamo (1999, Carswell) Annual Review of Family Law at 46.
  • [130] Supra, Note 86 at 374-375.
  • [131] (1991) 105 N.S.R. (2d) 9, 284 A.P.R.  9 (N.S. Fam. Ct.).
  • [132] Supra, Note 1 at 2062.
  • [133] Supra, Note 102 at 446.
  • [134] Supra, Note 86 at 377.
  • [135] Supra, Note 62 at 22.
  • [136] Ligate v. Richardson (1997), 34 O.R. (3d) 423 (Ont. C.A.).
  • [137] Dhaliwal v. Beloud, (1998) 38 R.F.L. (4th) 345 (B.C.C.A.).
  • [138] Supra, Note 62 at 20.
  • [139] Supra, Note 1 at 2065.
  • [140] Ibid at 2079.
  • [141] Wynn Legal Defense Fund at http://www.parentsrights.org/troxel/wynnlet.html (Accessed November 1, 2000, and October 14, 2001. This link no longer works.).
  • [142] Supra, Note 85 at paras. 56-58.
  • [143] (1997) 31 R.F.L. (4th) 440 at 445 (O.C.J. Prov. Div.).
  • [144] Supra, Note 32.
  • [145] Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.) 1982, c.11.
  • [146] (1993) 108 D.L.R. (4th) 193 (S.C.C.).
  • [147] (1993) 49 R.F.L. (3d) 317 (S.C.C.).
  • [148] Supra, Note 145 at 273.
  • [149] Ibid at 263.
  • [150] Ibid.
  • [151] (1994) 9 R.F.L. (4th) 157 (S.C.C.).
  • [152] Ibid at 201.
  • [153] Ibid at 204 -207.
  • [154] (1990) 50 R.F.L. (4th) 63.
  • [155] Ibid at 104-105.
  • [156] [2000] S.C.J. No. 48 at paras. 11 & 12 (S.C.C.) (QL).
  • [157] [1986] 2 S.C.R. 573.
  • [158] Supra, Note 150 at 208.
  • [159] Supra, Note 126 at 253.
  • [160] Nicholas Bala, The Charter of Rights and Family Law in Canada:  A New Era, C.F.L.Q. 18 (2000-2001) 373 at 423.
  • [161] Ibid.
  • [162] Supra, Note 124.
  • [163] Supra, Note 159 at 426-427.
  • [164] Supra, Note 124.
  • [165] Supra, Note 102 at 430.
  • [166] Supra, Note 103.
  • [167] Supra, Note 10.
  • [168] Supra, Note 111.
  • [169] Supra, Note 113.
  • [170] Supra, Note 1 at 2059.
  • [171] 126 N.H. 388 at 391-392 (1985).
  • [172] Supra , Note 106 at 296 and 331.
  • [173] 29 S.W. (3d) 199 at 204 (Tex. App.-Beaumont 2000).
  • [174] 85 Cal. App. (4th) 848 (2000).
  • [175] Ibid at 863.
  • [176] Supra, Note 85 at paras. 45-47.
  • [177] Supra, Note 62 at 17-18.
  • [178] Supra, Note 7.
  • [179] Sherry Colb, King Solomon in the 21st Century, online: Findlaw King Solomon in the 21st Century (accessed November 1, 2000).
  • [180] Supra, Note 62 at 23.
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