Custody, Access and Child Support: Findings from The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth

Description of figures

Figure 1: Family Context at Birth for Various Cohorts of Children — Canada

All figures are approximate

  • 1963: 5% single parent, 2.5% common law, 1% Marriage: common-law before, 91.5% marriage: no common-law before
  • 1973: 7% single parent, 3% common law, 5% Marriage: common-law before, 85% marriage: no common-law before
  • 1983: 7% single parent, 10% common law, 23% Marriage: common-law before, 60% marriage: no common-law before
  • 1993: 9% single parent, 20% common law, 33% Marriage: common-law before, 38% marriage: no common-law before

[ Return to Figure 1 ]

Figure 2: Family Context at Birth for Various Cohorts of Children--Ontario and Quebec

All figures are approximate

  • Ontario
    • 1963: 5% single parent, 3% common law, 1% Marriage: common-law before, 91% marriage: no common-law before
    • 1973: 6% single parent, 2.5% common law, 2.5% Marriage: common-law before, 89% marriage: no common-law before
    • 1983: 5% single parent, 8% common law, 22% Marriage: common-law before, 65% marriage: no common-law before
    • 1993: 10% single parent, 12% common law, 30% Marriage: common-law before, 48% marriage: no common-law before
  • Quebec
    • 1963: 2% single parent, 2% common law, 0% Marriage: common-law before, 96% marriage: no common-law before
    • 1973: 6% single parent, 3% common law, 5% Marriage: common-law before, 86% marriage: no common-law before
    • 1983: 2% single parent, 18% common law, 26% Marriage: common-law before, 54% marriage: no common-law before
    • 1993: 6% single parent, 44% common law, 28% Marriage: common-law before, 22% marriage: no common-law before

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Figure 3: Cumulative Percentage of Canadian Children Who Were Born to a Lone Parent or Have Experienced the Separation of Their Parents, for Various Birth Cohorts

All figures are approximate

  • 1961-1963 Cohorts 25% by age 20
  • 1971-1973 Cohorts 27% by age 16
  • 1983-1984 Cohorts 25% by age 10
  • 1987-1988 Cohorts 23% by age 6

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Figure 4: Cumulative Percentage of Canadian Children Born in a Two-Parent Family, Who Have Experienced Their Parents' Separation, According to Type of Parents' Union--1983-1984 Cohorts--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • Common-Law: 63% by age 10
  • Common-Law, Married since: 29% by age 10
  • Marriage, Common-Law Before: 27% by age 10
  • Marriage, No Common-Law Before: 14% by age 10

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Figure 5: Cumulative Percentage of Children Born in a Two-Parent Family, Who Have Experienced Their Parents' Separation Before Age 6, According to Type of Parents' Union--1983-1988 Cohorts--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • Quebec
    • Common-Law: 39% by age 6
    • Common-Law, Married since: 25% by age 6
    • Marriage, Common-Law Before: 15% by age 6
    • Marriage, No Common-Law Before: 9% by age 6
  • Ontario
    • Common-Law: 61% by age 6
    • Common-Law, Married since: 18% by age 6
    • Marriage, Common-Law Before: 18% by age 6
    • Marriage, No Common-Law Before: 8% by age 6

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Figure 6: Distribution of Children Aged 0-11 and of Children from Broken Families, According to Type of Parents' Union--Canada--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • All Children
    • Common-Law: 13%
    • Common-Law, Married since: 3%
    • Marriage, Common-Law Before: 32%
    • Marriage, No Common-Law Before: 52%
  • Children from Broken Homes
    • Common-Law: 34%
    • Common-Law, Married since: 5%
    • Marriage, Common-Law Before: 31%
    • Marriage, No Common-Law Before: 30%

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Figure 7: Distribution of Children Aged 0-11 and of Children from Broken Families, According to Type of Parents' Union--Quebec--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • All Children
    • Common-Law: 29%
    • Common-Law, Married since: 3%
    • Marriage, Common-Law Before: 30%
    • Marriage, No Common-Law Before: 38%
  • Children from Broken Homes
    • Common-Law: 50%
    • Common-Law, Married since: 5%
    • Marriage, Common-Law Before: 22%
    • Marriage, No Common-Law Before: 23%

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Figure 8: Percentage of Children from Broken Marriages Who Have Not Yet Witnessed Their Parents' Divorce, According to Time Elapsed Since Separation--NLSCY 1994-1995 (Life Table Estimates)

All figures are approximate

  • After 5 years: Canada=29%,
  • Ontario=31%,
  • Quebec=20%,
  • Atlantic Provinces=30%,
  • Prairies=25%,
  • British Columbia=25%

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Figure 9: Proportion of Children Whose Parents Have Been Separated for at Least 5 Years and for Whom a Custody Order Does Not Exist, According to the Type of Parental Separation--Quebec and Rest of Canada--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • Quebec
    • Divorced: 28%
    • Married and Separated: 54%
    • Common-Law: 43%
    • All: 37%
  • Rest of Canada
    • Divorced: 29%
    • Married and Separated: 66%
    • Common-Law: 57%
    • All: 43%

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Figure 10: Degree of Tension Created by the Question of Living Arrangements or Visiting Rights, According to Type of Parental Separation--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • Custody Order
    • Divorced: No Tension 40%, Very Little Tension 23%, Some Tension 19%, Great Tension 18%
    • Married and Separated: No Tension 32%, Very Little Tension 13%, Some Tension 29%, Great Tension 26%
    • Common-Law: No Tension 39%, Very Little Tension 13%, Some Tension 25%, Great Tension 23%
  • No Custody Order
    • Divorced: No Tension 52%, Very Little Tension 22%, Some Tension 15%, Great Tension 11%
    • Married and Separated: No Tension 62%, Very Little Tension 16%, Some Tension 15%, Great Tension 8%
    • Common-Law: No Tension 63%, Very Little Tension 17%, Some Tension 14%, Great Tension 6%

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Figure 11: Type of Contact Maintained with Either Parent at Time of Separation--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • Mother
    • Never Visits: 1%,
    • Visits Irregularly: 2%,
    • Visits Regularly: 4%,
    • Shares Residence: 7%,
    • Lives With: 86%
  • Father
    • Never Visits: 15%,
    • Visits Irregularly: 25%,
    • Visits Regularly: 47%,
    • Shares Residence: 7%,
    • Lives With: 7%

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Figure 12: Type of Contact Maintained with Father at Time of Separation, Whether the Broken Union Was a Marriage or Common-Law Union--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • Marriage
    • Never Visits: 11%,
    • Visits Irregularly: 25%,
    • Visits Regularly: 47%,
    • Shares Residence: 8%,
    • Lives With: 8%
  • Common-Law
    • Never Visits: 21%,
    • Visits Irregularly: 23%,
    • Visits Regularly: 47%,
    • Shares Residence: 3%,
    • Lives With: 5%

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Figure 13: Type of Contact Maintained with Father at the Time of Survey, According to Time Elapsed Since Separation--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • Less Than 2 Years
    • Never Visits: 10%,
    • Visits Irregularly: 16%,
    • Visits Regularly: 57%,
    • Shares Residence: 9%,
    • Lives With: 8%
  • 5 Years or More
    • Never Visits: 24%,
    • Visits Irregularly: 32%,
    • Visits Regularly: 31%,
    • Shares Residence: 6%,
    • Lives With: 7%

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Figure 14: Visiting Patterns with Father, for Children Living with Mother at Time of Separation, According to Regularity of Child Support Payments--NLSCY 1994-1995

All figures are approximate

  • Regular Payments on Time
    • Never Visits: 7%,
    • Visits Irregularly: 22%,
    • Visits Every 2 Weeks: 23%,
    • Visits Weekly: 48%
  • Irregular Payments
    • Never Visits: 9%,
    • Visits Irregularly: 34%,
    • Visits Every 2 Weeks: 22%,
    • Visits Weekly: 35%
  • No Payment for 6 Months or More
    • Never Visits: 15%,
    • Visits Irregularly: 28%,
    • Visits Every 2 Weeks: 39%,
    • Visits Weekly: 18%

[ Return to Figure14 ]

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