REPORT ON FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL-TERRITORIAL CONSULTATIONS

APPENDIX C: REPORT ON SASKATCHEWAN WORKSHOPS

INTRODUCTION

Workshops on custody and access were held in Yorkton on April 10, 2001, Regina on April 11, 2001, and Saskatoon on May 11, 2001. In addition, consultations were held with the Canadian Bar Association's Family Law South Section and the Family Law North Section on June 12 and 13, 2001, respectively. In total, 112 participants were involved. A list of participating organizations is provided in Table 1.

The following topics were discussed:

  • best interests of children;
  • roles and responsibilities of parents; and
  • family violence.

SUMMARY OF THE DISCUSSIONS

BEST INTERESTS OF CHILDREN

What are children's needs when their parents separate/divorce?
Consistency and Predictability

Workshop participants felt there should be consistency for the child in daily activities: band, school, social activities, sports, community activities, his or her space, medical needs, pets, piano lessons, among others. Having a predictable schedule and calendar gives a child security-knowing where he or she will be and knowing, as much as possible what the routine will be. Some participants felt that a specified routine was really a parents' need rather than a children's need, and that all children had to know the rules in each home. It was also noted that children need the stability that comes from extended families and community activities. Also seen as contributing to the children's sense of security is a safe, conflict-free environment in which there is economic stability so that their physiological needs are met.

Participants indicated that children need to feel safe emotionally and psychologically through caring and loving relationships with both parents. Children need to have stable and mature adults in their lives. It was suggested that children may need more meaningful time with parents, although it was also suggested that children may need time away from both parents. Some participants noted that children's security should be balanced with opportunities to meet new people.

Safety

Participants noted that children's safety-physical, emotional, mental and spiritual-should be ensured. Children should not witness violence in the home.

Support

Support for children identified by participants included individual counselling and therapy, support from the extended family, assistance from an outside advocate (lawyer or lay advocate), representation apart from their parents, and the availability of both parents after separation. Some participants advocated educational programs for children of separating parents, to help them understand relationships and teach them life skills. Some participants believe that educational programs for children should be mandatory. Mentoring programs for children with families who have had positive experiences were mentioned. Support was also seen to be provided by the children's social circle of friends, and this is particularly important when children move out of the community. Participants noted that the support for children should recognize that they are in a process of grieving and should be allowed to grieve.

Communication with Children

Participants stressed that children must be told that the separation and events subsequent to it are not their fault, and that they are wanted and loved. Children need to be told honestly what is happening in their lives-in terms they can understand. Children need to know that both parents still love them and that it's all right for them to love the other parent. They also need to know that they are not alone.

Participants also stressed that children need to be able to safely communicate their feelings and say what they need. If children can't talk to their parents, there should be someone else (a social worker or other trained professional) they can talk to.

Allowing Children to be Children

Participants indicated that in order for children to be allowed to be children, they should not become a "counsellor" for either parent, be a partner for one parent, be asked to spy on one parent, be asked to take sides (explicitly or implicitly) or be used to gain power over the other parent. Children must be free of parental conflicts, decisions and manipulation. Children should not be "in the middle."

Participants said children need time to adjust. They should be free of worry about financial problems. Children should be treated with respect, understanding and consideration; indeed, parents should be models of respectful behaviour for the children. Parents must set their differences aside and focus on the children. They should be aware of the changes in the children's lives, such as loss of friends and team memberships. New adult relationships or new siblings must be introduced appropriately, with no pressure.

Parents should be encouraged to seek information and counselling to help them deal more effectively with their children's needs. Some participants suggested mandatory education programs for parents to show them how their actions affect their children. One suggestion was for couples to have a pre-conception contract setting out their responsibilities for children born out of that relationship.

Extended Family

Participants noted the need to foster and nourish the children's relationships with their extended family. Grandparents and siblings can provide support and continuity in children's lives. However, the extended family must also be aware of the children's needs for ongoing communication and support, keeping the children out of conflicts and providing a safe environment.

The Family Law System and Children

Participants felt the family law system needs to be dedicated to the children's best interests, as opposed to being an adversarial system. All who play a role in the family law system must be trained to understand how to meet children's needs. There also needs to be immediate access to court processes and other binding agreement processes for families and children. Accusations of abuse must be proven without a doubt, and the family law system needs to be sensitive to the root causes of deeper cultural issues. Some participants questioned whether listing "best interests" in the Infants Act in Saskatchewan had made any difference to children.

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF PARENTS

What are the roles and responsibilities of parents during and after separation and divorce?
Structure and Consistency

Many participants described the need to provide structure, consistency and a stable environment in children's lives in terms of basic needs, such as food, clothing, daily activities, discipline, school attendance, special education, and medical, financial and social activities. With respect to financial obligations to children, it was suggested that support payments should not be tied to access. Some participants suggested that parents should develop a parenting plan that includes these needs. The plan would recognize each parent's areas of strength and interest. Structured routines were seen to provide security, control and predictability for children. Consistency means having both parents involved in the children's lives. Fostering cultural and spiritual needs to provide values and cultural continuity for children was also discussed. This could require flexibility of access on particular days for attending cultural events.

Parental and Family Relationships

A number of participants suggested that parents should recognize that each parent has particular strengths and positive attributes. Participants would encourage both parents to be involved equally in providing nurturing and financial support, recognizing factors that may affect financial status (e.g. their actual net income). Both parents should have access to the children, and it was noted that, while this may not be enforceable, it should be promoted. Parents need to promote shared responsibility for the children, including supporting and encouraging the children's relationship with the other parent. Participants felt that parents must be honest and candid about the goals they are pursuing as parents, and recognize that the children's interests may be separate. Decisions should be made in the best interests of the children. When possible, parents should stay out of the adversarial court system, but they should observe court orders and carry through with their commitments to the other parent and to the children.

All of this would demonstrate commitment and respect in role modelling. Some participants noted that children should not be negatively affected by economic issues between their parents. Also, financial payments should not be tied to access. Parents have an obligation to ensure that their children maintain contact and relationships with extended family members. Extended family members should also show the same rules of respect. It was mentioned that common-law and multiple relationships may also create problems for children.

Education and Support

Some participants emphasized that parents should educate themselves on the impacts of separation and divorce on children and their own responsibilities-legal, social and parenting. Parents should reach out for the help and support they may need in developing and maintaining a respectful relationship with the other parent, or to ensure they are meeting their own emotional and financial needs, and gaining coping and parenting skills. Family members were also mentioned as a form of support for parents in need of help. Some participants indicated that parenting programs should be mandated prior to divorce.

Communication with Children

It was suggested that parents should help children prepare for change and transitions by communicating with them in age-appropriate language. Some participants felt it was the parents' responsibility to give children coping skills, guidance and support; others felt these skills should be provided by others. Parents should reassure children that the separation or divorce was not their fault. Also, children, especially young children, should not have to decide with whom to live. There should be sensitivity to gender issues for older children. Some children's voices about access may best be heard through a social worker. It was mentioned that children should be educated about a parent's bad behaviour-not all parents are good parents. Communication should also be selective: children do not need to know everything. Parents must realize that children are learning from them at every moment. Some participants indicated that when parents were unable to communicate with their children, it was their responsibility to seek assistance. Parents were advised to listen carefully to what their children say about safety and security at the other parent's home.

Conflict Reduction

Some participants advised that parents should refrain from arguing around the children and keep children out of any conflict. It was felt that if conflict is dealt with in a healthy way, children could benefit. Parents should not use children as weapons or pawns to obtain the spoils of divorce or for retribution. And each parent must take responsibility for herself or himself unconditionally, regardless of the other parent's actions. Parents should avoid conflictual behaviour, such as unjustly accusing the other parent of heinous acts, or criticizing or undermining the other parent. It was suggested that parents should not make major decisions within the first six months of separation. Some participants emphasized that being honest and respectful would serve as a model for children regarding dispute resolution. Parents should"be the grown-up and let your child be the child."

Emotional Care

Parents should give their children unconditional love. Participants stressed that meeting the emotional needs of children includes providing love and nurturing the children, delaying personal needs for the sake of the children, letting go of anger, refraining from abuse, forgiving the other parent and fostering in the children a sense of belonging. Some participants felt that parents must recognize that kids are not "divorceable" and still need contact with the other parent and with other children. It was mentioned that parents who are together do not compete for the love of their children; likewise separating parents should refrain from competing. Providing a nurturing, comfortable and stable environment involving both parents is vital. Many participants indicated that a primary role of parents was to ensure that children were kept safe from physical and emotional harm.

What are some options that would assist parents to fulfill these obligations?
Services

Workshop participants described a number of services that could assist parents. Some early preventative services suggested included:

  • pre-separation services, such as a mentoring program or wellness program for parents before they are in crisis or have assumed that the marriage is over;
  • a pre-marriage certificate that includes parenting education, decisionmaking and conflict resolution;
  • a revised community services booklet to be provided to parents in hospital when a baby is born; and
  • a "divorce preparation" course similar to a marriage preparation course.

Other suggested services and programs for parents included:

  • mediation that is accessible and affordable;
  • communication and alternative dispute resolution programs;
  • education on the impacts of separation and divorce on children;
  • resources and supports in place for parents to help themselves;
  • follow-up parenting courses for ongoing support and new knowledge or application;
  • one-stop central personal intake service for getting information (can also use a toll-free number and a Web site);
  • a central investigation unit to provide referrals to the family;
  • Justice Department involvement in intakes, interviews with parents and children, referrals and recommendations (e.g. for counselling);
  • custody and access assessments out of court (impartial party to meet with parents, children school official, the family doctor and others, and to make recommendations);
  • parent support groups;
  • community advocates for parents (highly visible person);
  • free legal advice;
  • transportation to access services;
  • access money for parents to fulfil obligations;
  • mandatory counselling or education for parents (although some participants argued that courts could better encourage counselling as a factor in decisionmaking, rather than make counselling mandatory);
  • a place for supervised access (since orders can be in place where no supervised access centre is available);
  • a safe place for parents to communicate about the best interests of their children (with a mediator or other qualified person);
  • guidance on who to contact and how to respond in instances of custody and access violations;
  • accessible, government-funded counselling;
  • assistance with developing parenting plans before going to court;
  • opportunity to develop parenting plans at any point in the process; and
  • ongoing monitoring of families for years (e.g. by a social worker).

The programs mentioned for children included:

  • free programs to teach children healthy ways of interaction, conflict resolution and coping skills;
  • resources, programs and supports that are affordable or free;
  • an advocate for the children;
  • children's education courses (such as those provided at Roman Catholic family services) related to age groups for support, problem solving and grieving, and to teach coping skills, among other things.

The importance of sufficient funding was also emphasized. Insufficient funding was seen to cause delays, such as with custody and access reports. Without funding the realities cannot be addressed. Some participants felt that services should be coordinated with the police, the Crown, lawyers and prosecutors in high conflict cases. Enforcement agencies need clear guidelines on whether and how to respond to existing orders and access arrangements. A number of participants emphasized that services and guidelines to support the enforcement of access agreements are required.

Wraparound Approach

Some participants discussed a "wraparound approach" to providing services. This would include having a number of agencies involved with a family that would enhance a family's strengths, identify needs for improvement, and build on what the family needs. The family would decide who would be involved in service provision.

ACCESS, INFORMATION AND EDUCATION

Access to Services

Access to and availability of services were discussed. Some participants suggested making the referral and support system more accessible, e.g. in rural centres. Rural centres were also discussed as having specific service challenges: availability of and access to services, cultural and language needs, distance, and problems with group work in small communities, such as lack of privacy. Suggestions to ensure access included accessible legal advice, quick provisions of information, information in appropriate languages, affordable services, and the opportunity for parents in conflict to attend separate sessions.

Information Needs

Participants indicated that parents in dispute need early access to legislative and legal information as well as information on counselling and parenting assistance. Parents need to know what strengths they have and can build on. One suggestion was to update the Yorkton Community Services booklet with available services. Some parents are reluctant to seek assistance because they think they will be unable to meet their obligations. It was suggested that information for parents should also be available via a Web site and toll-free number. Participants noted that even experts and professionals need to know what is available.

A positive advertising or public relations campaign on television and radio and using posters was suggested to build awareness of the needs of children during separation, inform parents about access to services, promote the involvement of both parents in their children's lives, and provide positive messages about people going through separation or divorce. The information campaign should address the stigma placed on divorce and separation by the religious community and society in general.

Education

Education was seen as a tool to assist parents. In general, participants felt that parents needed education on dealing with the root causes of problems, making informed decisions about respectful ways to end a marriage, conflict resolution, assertiveness, developing a parenting plan, parenting and life skills, and children's experiences during divorce and separation. Some participants felt that education for parents should be mandatory before parents could file for divorce. Others questioned why education should be mandatory when the parties had agreed to a divorce. Still others felt that mandatory education might contribute to delay in maintenance applications.

California Masters Program

Participants also mentioned the California Masters Program that helps parents with court orders to work out issues as they arise and ensures that court orders are followed. This program includes some counselling and mediation.

Legislation

One suggestion from participants was that a legislative mechanism be employed outside of the Child and Family Services Act to avoid the stigma of dealing with a protection worker. One option would be to use the Children's Law Act. Participants suggested that a legislative approach should:

  • promote working first with parents to discover the root causes of problems;
  • include incentives for parents to carry out their responsibilities;
  • include repercussions for parents who do not honour court orders;
  • provide assistance to parents before they have to go to court;
  • be more consensual and supportive rather than adversarial;
  • include a clear policy statement;
  • provide options other than court (e.g. a worker assigned to a family, a referee to assist in the interpretation of court orders, a child advocate); and
  • include convictions for non-compliance with restraining orders.

It was pointed out that any legislative process may not help when one parent is undermining the parenting arrangement. Some participants noted that the terminology of reasonable access in a court order is a problem, since people who have court orders are generally not reasonable. Clearer rules and guidelines are needed for enforcement agencies to use.

The Court System

Some participants suggested that the wording of orders and agreements should begin with a foundation in the "best interests of the child" and with the assumption that parents will work together to parent their children. The wording should also be clear and provide specific guidelines to enforcement agencies to avoid situations in which parents call the police or social service for assistance and are then directed back to their lawyers and the costly and time-consuming court system. A system needs to be put into place that would allow parents to avoid going to court again and again-possibly with built-in reviews that provide flexibility and opportunities for change as children grow and the situation changes.

Some participants felt that someone in the court system needs to be listening to the children, but not expecting them to choose where to live. There should be a children's workshop so that children know they have a voice in the system.

Also discussed was the suggestion that the courts need to support the development of parenting plans, which would involve the parents writing down their children's needs before the plan is developed. Another suggestion was that there should be a separate court for family issues.

And it was mentioned that courts should be made affordable.

A Consensual Approach

There was some agreement among participants about exploring a consensual versus an adversarial approach to custody and access. Currently, courts are not seen as appropriate resources for resolving family disputes. A consensual approach could include collaborative law practices, including round table conferencing with families to create a controlled dialogue in which lawyers could provide advice based on their experience. Professionals would assist parents through times of crisis, with education and soothing support. Participants saw this as a kinder approach to custody and access. For this to work, resources and an infrastructure would need to be put in place and there would need to be a focus on non-adversarial thinking when dealing with children and parents. The approach would need to be holistic, involving professionals.

What messages about parenting responsibility do you think should be addressed in terminology and legislation?

The messages about parenting responsibility discussed in the Saskatchewan workshops have been organized according to options proposed in the consultation document, other potential terms, legislation, terminology change and the court system.

PROPOSED OPTIONS

FAMILY VIOLENCE

What are the issues facing children who experience family violence?

Loss of Feelings of Safety and Security

Participants recognized that children experiencing violence are affected by a loss of safety and security-physically, emotionally and psychologically. They may feel lonely and isolated, sometimes with feelings of helplessness, shame or self-blame. Many children are unprotected and have no safe place to go to. Children are often silent victims: many parents assume that children cannot see or feel what is going on, but they do. It was pointed out that children may not know how to handle conflict at a time when there may be a lack of parental guidance. Children may lose trust in those they love when their role models turn out to be abusers. Lower self-esteem was mentioned as another effect on children experiencing violence. It was mentioned that situations of violence and substance abuse prevent children from engaging in childhood activities-survival becomes a priority. When violence causes one or more relocations in a child's life, he or she may have no sense of belonging, no stability.

Participants also indicated that if children are removed from a family because of violence, they may think that they have done something wrong. Children may also be confused about love, (for example, when they think that their parents may be violent at times, but still love them). Family loyalties may be called into question if children need to choose sides. In violent family situations, children may be neglected or even hospitalized. Children may live in fear, waiting for the next crisis or fearing that they will lose one or both parents. There may also be a period of uncertainty for children when an abusing parent has been away (e.g. in jail) and is returning.

Responses to Experiencing Violence

Participants described the trauma experienced by children in violent family situations in a long list: stress, mood swings, hallucinations, hiding, inability to focus, dissociative behaviours, high anxiety levels, loss of spontaneity, suppressed emotion, "walking on eggshells," loss of control, and eating disorders. Children may or may not become desensitized to violence. There may be secrecy and shame-children don't want others to know. Following exposure to family violence, children may have difficulty taking responsibility for their actions. They can become aggressive or defiant, or withdrawn and victimized. Children may become violent to other adults or animals-they may see violence as the norm.

The role of children as protectors of the abused adult was mentioned. Participants noted that children may experience a sense of guilt (e.g. they feel they should have been able to protect the parent). On the other hand, children may be involved in the abuse of the other parent. Children may be embarrassed to bring friends home, adding to the sense of isolation from friends and community. Peers in school may pick on children (e.g. because they have no clean clothes). Children may also have the additional responsibility of looking after siblings when parents are drinking or fighting, or both. Participants mentioned that children may have problems with attention in school, either from lack of sleep or worry. There may be an ongoing fear of losing a parent. It was noted that children may not have any parent, since the abusing parent takes away the other parent's ability to parent.

Participants noted that the long-term effects on children from exposure to family violence may lead to delays in cognitive, emotional and motor skills. Children experiencing violence may be more susceptible to drug or alcohol abuse. Participants noted that in some cases, children may turn to substance abuse, run away, become prostitutes, become depressed and commit suicide. Violent situations negatively affect children's views of what would normally be supports: police and counsellors, for example. Family violence can also affect children's long-term friendships or job prospects, and may have an impact on healthy sexual development and belief systems.

Considerations for Addressing Family Violence

Participants indicated that there is a lack of services for parents and children in situations of family violence (or there are long waiting lists when the need is immediate). They suggested that children need professionals (lawyers and judges) who have experience in dealing with violence. In turn these professionals need clear policies for dealing with family violence. Some participants suggested that false allegations need to be looked at seriously and strong penalties applied for allegations proven false or strong repercussions if proven true. The risk to the child (versus the other parent) needs to be verified through investigation. The issue of preventive work (such as education on healthy family dynamics, conflict resolution) for families prior to separation was also mentioned. There should be safe contact for the child with the abusing parent-the children need to know the parent is all right. Children need to be taught positive coping skills. When children have become very violent, anger management strategies will be insufficient; the children's belief systems need to be changed. It was pointed out that for a definition of abuse, there is little difference in the effects on children in witnessing and experiencing violence.

Factors Leading to Violence

Participants' views on the factors that increase the likelihood of family violence include substance abuse, poverty, loss of income from one spouse, and loss of the other parent in the home (additional responsibilities on the remaining parent). It was also noted that, over time, an abused parent may also become an abuser.

What messages would you like to see reflected in legislation regarding family violence?

Legislation Recognition

Participants felt that legislation should recognize that family abuse and neglect are not acceptable, and that children's well-being and safety (emotional, physical and psychological) must come first. This would include having the words family violence included in the legislation. One suggestion was that violence come under the heading of "best interests of the child" in the new Divorce Act, but this could be viewed as too weak. Alternatively, violence could be considered in the context of past conduct, in that courts shall or may consider it. Judges would evaluate whether it is an isolated or chronic situation. Some participants said legislation should reflect the notion that people are accountable for their actions regarding violence, but they had no suggestions about how people could be made to take more responsibility for their actions.

Allegations of Violence. Some participants suggested that false allegations and the alienation of one parent are also forms of emotional abuse; others cautioned that people should not be deterred from making allegations of abuse. Many participants felt that all allegations need to be investigated seriously. Some participants indicated that laws to deal with family violence are in place, but are not being enforced. It was suggested that all levels of family abuse issues must be considered in family law matters. Some felt that legislation should include consequences for false allegations. Some participants said that legislation and judges must consider the future and overall development of children (i.e. are we perpetuating the cycle of abuse by allowing family violence to occur?).

A number of participants preferred an approach in which legislation on violence reflected a balance between "setting the bar too high" (perfection leading to system overload) or too low (ineffective for the best interests of children). Some participants felt that people sometimes go through tough times that lead to isolated instances of violence, and that legislation should, therefore, only recognize patterned and ongoing abusive behaviour. Others stated that there should be zero tolerance for any violence, and definite consequences for abusers. Some participants stressed that parents should be viewed as innocent until proven guilty, while at the same time victims should be protected. Others emphasized that the risk to children should be determined quickly by informed professionals, and also noted that consistent messages and a consistent approach were needed in legislation. Participants indicated that the legislation should ensure that violence towards children is reviewed before shared parenting is granted.

Comments on Options
Services

Resources. One suggestion was that the law does not need to be changed, but rather that more money should be put into services, particularly in a proactive approach. Agencies are generally seen to be effective, but often not enough resources are available for them to continue to provide support (e.g. response staff often do not have access to files after hours). A need for partnering between provincial government agencies was identified by participants for more effective response. It was noted that local agencies were given the message to partner and use the wrap-around approach, but resources and funding are not available. Some participants suggested a continuum of services would be preferable to "one service fits all."

Counselling and Education. Counselling was suggested for abusers, victims and children. Children should have early intervention and education (e.g. a school course on conflict resolution and violent behaviour). Services for children were seen as a way to "fix the children so that we don't have to deal with them as adults." Parent education on anger management and abuse and neglect was also proposed for abusers and victims. It was suggested that caseworkers could be involved to monitor both perpetrator and victim. Participants noted that taking a course alone may not result in a change in behaviour, and emphasized the need for parents to demonstrate a change in abusive behaviour or face access denial. Some participants suggested mandatory counselling for first time abusers, such as exposure to "alternatives to violence" programs. Participants identified a need for support services to be available on evenings and weekends when the risks to children increase. Clear guidelines are needed for professionals dealing with violent situations regarding who responds and what happens to the child. Some participants felt that victims should be able to choose informal supports in addition to the formal supports (which are often only short-term). Informal (unpaid) supports are seen to be important in the long run. It was suggested that judges be educated about what they should take into account when making decisions on family abuse issues. If there is to be new legislation, judges need to be informed about it.

Supervised Access. It was suggested that removing children from an abusive home might actually be punishing the children. Some participants suggested that supervised access provides children with safe contact with a parent, as well as providing the opportunity for professionals to assess change. Others wondered whether behaviour change could be assessed this way, and suggested that behaviour must be monitored over time. Others echoed the sentiment, indicating that courses on violence and substance abuse are not enough to provide an abuser with access. They felt there should be proof of change over time. And, there should be consequences for people who do not go to programs for abusers.

Some participants said clear agreements on pick-ups and drop-offs would increase the chances of safety for family members. Also, the question was raised whether a person who is not a danger to children (i.e. only to the spouse) should have access to the children. Some participants felt that giving a parent access to the children means access to the mother with the associated potential for violence or exerting control. Others felt that children are affected by violence to a parent, even if they themselves are not abused. Some participants felt it would be impossible for a man to be violent to his wife and not to his children. Some participants also identified the need for an expanded supervised access program (with a therapeutic education component) to allow for safe access by the parent.

Wraparound Process. Participants discussed a wraparound process to help promote a healthy environment for a family. This approach would build on the strengths of individuals in the family and provide support for both abuser and abused. In this approach, an agency would bring together family members, neighbours, relatives and service agencies to work on the family's safety, social and financial well-being.

Organizations Represented at the Saskatoon Workshop

  • Catholic Family Services of Saskatoon
  • Child and Youth Services
  • Child Find Saskatchewan
  • Law Society of Saskatchewan
  • Lloydminster Interval House
  • Migneault Gibbons & Greenwood
  • Northwest Friendship Centre
  • Partnership for Violence Free Communities
  • Prince Albert Counselling and Mediation
  • Prince Albert Mental Health Services
  • Public Legal Education Association
  • Saskatchewan Department of Justice (Family Law Support Services)
  • Saskatchewan Legal Aid Offices
  • Saskatchewan Social Services
  • Saskatoon City Police

Organizations Represented at the Yorkton Workshop

  • Big Brothers and Sisters
  • Boys and Girls Clubs
  • Parkland ECIP, Child Action Plan
  • Saskatchewan Department of Justice (Family Law Support Services)
  • Saskatchewan Legal Aid Offices
  • Saskatchewan Social Services
  • Shelwin House
  • SIGN
  • Yorkdale School Division
  • Yorkton City RCMP
  • Yorkton Friendship Centre
  • Yorkton Mental Health Services
  • Yorkton Rural RCMP
  • Yorkton School Division (Public and No. 93)

Organizations Represented at the Regina Workshop

  • Canadian Bar Association, Family Law South
  • Child and Youth Services
  • Circle Project Childcare
  • Family Services, Regina
  • Law Society of Saskatchewan
  • Moose Jaw Transition House
  • National Shared Parenting Association
  • Regina Catholic Schools
  • Regina City Legal Aid
  • Regina Police Services, Peyakowak
  • Regina Police Services, Violence Intervention Program
  • Regina Public Schools
  • Regina Shared Parenting Network
  • Saskatchewan Action Committee on the Status of Women
  • Saskatchewan Coalition Against Family Violence
  • Saskatchewan Council on Children
  • Saskatchewan Department of Justice (Family Law Support Services)
  • Saskatchewan Department of Justice (Legislative Services)
  • Saskatchewan Department of Social Services
  • SBWAN
  • SCHD Mental Health
  • STOPS to Violence
  • YWCA Isabel Johnson Shelter
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